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Understanding about networking? What is Switch, Router, Hub, Bridges, and Modem?


It follows a big role in Ethical Hacking. You've must good understanding of networking that's "What is Switch, Router, Hub, Bridges, and Modem?", "What is network topology? What are nodes? How do works LAN Loc? Area Network) WAN Wide area network MAN Metropolitan Area Network What is network Port?", "What is Internet protocol?" and also Fundamental of network and wireless Security and last all about NAT, DHCP, Subnetting, Public IP, Private IP, IPv4, IPv6, DNS, ARP, OSI model, MAC address. You must have a piece of Good knowledge of these things.

Understanding about networking? img
Understanding networking?

You've must good understanding of networking?

So what is a computer network? Well, first, what is a network? The definition of a network is "A group or system of interconnected people or things"

So, it would be fair to say, a computer network would be “A group or system of interconnected computers” right? And that’s exactly what it is. A computer network is anything where more than one computer is connected.

Traditionally, a computer network would consist of desktop computers, servers, printers, etc. These days, we live in a connected world. We still have desktops, servers, and printers, but now we have a vast number of smart devices connected to our networks as well. Most of you will have a mobile phone, maybe a tablet. Security cameras and even smart lighting systems can be found on networks! And the list goes on and on!

Networking has changed the world and how we live in it. It’s a topic I still get excited about and there is no shortage of new things to learn.

What is Switch, Router, Hub, Bridges, and Modem?

  • Switch
  • Router
  • Hub
  • Bridges
  • Modem

1) Switches

You could think of a switch as the heart of a network, pumping blood (traffic) around the body (network). All Devices will connect to the switch and it is the switch's job to send the traffic to the correct place. Now unlike a hub, a switch can learn the mac addresses of each port using a Mac Address Table and can also send and receive at the same time which means no more collisions or delays.

A network switch looks a lot like a network hub. Unlike hubs, however, network switches are capable of inspecting incoming messages as they are received and directing them to a specific port—this creates an arp table on the switch so it knows where each device is and where to send the traffic destined for that device.

A switch determines the source and destination addresses of each packet and forwards data only to the specific devices, while hubs send the data to every port except the one that received the traffic. A switch is a lot more efficient on bandwidth as data only is sent to where it needs to go.

Switches are often confused with Routers, but a Router is a completely different device that decides which network to send traffic to.

The confusion has come from most home broadband routers now including a small 4 port switch so box boxes are combined and most people refer to it as the router.

2) Router

We have all heard of them and most likely everyone you know will have one in their home. If you are reading this on a computer then I bet there is one right next to you. A router connects your LAN to other networks such as the internet. If your house was a LAN network, your door would be the router. It is the way ‘outside’ of your network.

what a router is. And basically, a router is a device that you would use to connect multiple computers together to a network. Let's say you have three or four computers at home, and you want them all to be sharing files and sharing the internet, and even printing to each other or scanning to each other. What you need is a home network, and you do that with a router.

So, this is a router. They basically all look similar to this. There are two kinds of routers out there, ones that are wireless and ones that are wired. But the truth is, all wireless routers are also usually wired routers, because even though it has these full antennas that transmit the radio signal to your wireless devices, it also has these four ports in the back that let you connect any kind of not wireless device that you have, like a printer or even some TV.

Every router basically has this little computer in it, and when you connect your computer or your wireless devices to the router, it will negotiate the connection and give this computer or device something called an "IP address," which is kind of like its location or its number on the internet. And all the other computers in the network, also the internet, will know how to relate to this computer based on that number.

When you buy a router, you will often get it with this power adaptor, so you can connect it to the wall. You will get it with an Ethernet cable, so you can connect it to one of the computers or more importantly, the internet, like your cable modem or DSL modem. And sometimes you will even get it with a cool little stand that you can use to place it on, and kind of display it. So, that's the basic overview of what a router is.

3) Hub

Hubs were around before switches. A Hub's job is to forward traffic from the source device to the destination device.

A hub is a layer 1 (physical layer) device which means that it does not understand MAC or IP addresses. This is a problem. Because the hub does not know where the destination device is located, it will send traffic out of all ports (except the receiving port) causing collisions and queues which results in packet loss and delays. Due to the horrific downfalls, hubs have been replaced with switches almost everywhere.

A Hub that works in a fiscal layer of the OSI model is basically a non-intelligent device and has no dish and making capability. what a hub basically does is take the input data from one of the ports and broadcast the information to all other ports connected to the network.

so let me explain more in videos about with diagram Saudi to demonstrate its working consider a four-port network.

4) Bridges

Bridges are used to separate a LAN network into segments so that traffic is not sent between them. They work by using layer 2 (data link layer) to identify where traffic should be sent. Now it is worth noting that bridges will send traffic out all ports until it learns (using MAC address) where each port leads.

Computer Networks: Basics of Bridges in Computer Networks

Topics Discussed:
  • Basics of the bridge.
  • Types of bridges.
  • Working of the bridges.
  • Difference between router and bridge.

5) modem

A modem is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data.

Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals, from light-emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns the digital data of a computer into a modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data.

Modems are generally classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (symbol bit(s), sometimes abbreviated "bps"), or bytes per second (symbol B(s)). Modems can also be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud. The baud unit denotes symbols per second, or the number of times per second the modem sends a new signal.

For example, the International Telecommunication Union ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying with two possible frequencies, corresponding to two distinct symbols, to carry 300 bits per second using 300 baud. By contrast, the original ITU V.22 standard, which could transmit and receive four distinct symbols, transmitted 1,200 bits by sending 600 symbols per second using phase-shift keying. Many modems are used to connect to the Internet through telephone service or cable television service. Slow telephone service is called dial-up.

Faster telephone service is called DSL (Digital subscriber line) and is usually more than ten times faster.

Full info about Hub, switch, or router? Network devices explained

Hubs, switches, and routers are devices that allow us to create networks and connect those networks to one another. We explain how they work and what their individual differences are.

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